Homeland Security Advisory Council Members
The following is a list of current Homeland Security Advisory Council members. To view information about each member, please scroll down.
- William "Bill" Webster (Chair), Retired Partner, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, LLP
- Chief William “Bill” Bratton (Vice Chair), Police Commissioner, City of New York
- Art Acevedo, Chief of Police, Austin Police Department, Texas
- Stephen Adegbite, Senior Vice President, Enterprise Information Security Program Oversight & Strategy, Wells Fargo & Co
- John Allen, General (Ret.), U.S. Marine Corps
- Thad Allen, Executive Vice President, Booz | Allen | Hamilton, Inc.
- Norman "Norm" Augustine, Former Chairman and CEO, Lockheed Martin Corp.
- Kenneth "Chuck" Canterbury, President, Fraternal Order of Police
- Richard Danzig, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Center for a New American Security
- Ruth David, President and CEO, ANSER (Analytic Services, Inc.)
- Paul Goldenberg, President and CEO, Cardinal Point Strategies, LLC
- Lee H. Hamilton, Director, Center on Congress, Indiana University
- Jane Harman, President and CEO, Woodrow Wilson Center
- Elizabeth Holtzman, Co-Chair Herrick’s Government Relations Practice
- Jim Jones, Chairman and CEO, ManattJones Global Strategies, LLC
- Gary Kelly, Chairman and CEO, Southwest Airlines
- Carie Lemack, Cofounder of Global Survivors Network and Families of September 11th
- Wilson “Bill” Livingood, President and Partner, Livingood Advisors, LLC
- Jane Holl Lute, President and CEO, Cyber Security Council and Former Deputy Secretary of the US Department of Homeland Security
- John Magaw, Consultant, Domestic and International Security
- Chief Walter McNeil, Past President, International Association of Chiefs of Police
- Bonnie Michelman, Director of Police, Security and Outside Services at Massachusetts General Hospital
- Jeff Moss, Founder of Black Hat and DEFCON Conferences
- Annise Danette Parker, Mayor, City of Houston, TX
- Chuck Ramsey, Police Commissioner, City of Philadelphia Pennsylvania
- Harold Schaitberger, General President, International Association of Firefighters
- Ali Soufan, Chairman and CEO, The Soufan Group, LLC
- Lydia W. Thomas, Former President and CEO, Noblis, Inc.
William "Bill" Webster (Chair), Retired Partner, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, LLP
Judge William Webster is the Ex Officio Homeland Security Advisory Council Chair. Mr. Webster served as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1987 to 1991. Prior to his service as CIA Director, Judge Webster served as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit, and an attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri. In 1991, Judge Webster was presented the Distinguished Intelligence Medal. Judge Webster was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Security Medal. Following his departure from the CIA, Judge Webster joined the law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy, LLP in Washington, DC, and is now a retired partner. TOP OF PAGE
Chief William “Bill” Bratton (Vice Chair), Police Commissioner, City of New York
Chief William Bratton (Vice-Chair) is the New York City Police Commissioner. Bratton began his law enforcement career in 1970, and has served as Los Angeles Police Department Chief, Chief of the New York City Transit Police, Boston Police Commissioner, and former Chairman of Kroll, part of Altegrity Security Consulting. Chief Bratton is also the only executive to serve two terms as the elected President of the Police Executive Research Forum. Chief Bratton's professional honors include the Schroeder Brothers Medal; the Boston Police Department's highest award for valor.
Art Acevedo, Chief of Police, Austin Police Department, Texas
Art Acevedo is Chief of the Austin, Texas, Police Department. Chief Acevedo leads a department of 2,400 law enforcement and support personnel who carry out police operations within the City of Austin, as well as the Austin-Bergstrom International Airport, city parks and lakes, and municipal courts. Under Chief Acevedo’s leadership, the Police Department has been reengineered into a data-driven and intelligence-led policing organization. Starting his career with the California Highway Patrol, Chief Acevedo was subsequently promoted through various positions of increasing responsibility to Chief, California Highway Patrol, in 2005. Chief Acevedo holds various leadership positions with the Major Cities Chiefs Association and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.
Stephen Adegbite, Senior Vice President, Enterprise Information Security Program Oversight and Strategy, Wells Fargo & Co.
Steve Adegbite is the Senior Vice President in charge of the Enterprise Information Security Program Oversight and Strategy Organization at Wells Fargo & Co. Prior to joining Wells Fargo & Co., Mr. Adegbite was the Director, Cyber Security Strategies at Lockheed Martin Information Services and Global Services (IS&GS). Prior to joining Lockheed Martin, Mr. Adegbite was the Chief Security Strategist for Adobe Systems Inc. within the Adobe Secure Software Engineering, Steve has also worked with Operations (IO) positions at the National Security Agency (NSA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), both as a government employee and as an associate consultant for Booz Allen Hamilton, a strategy and technology consulting firm.
John R. Allen, General, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret.)
General John R. Allen is a retired four-star U.S. Marine General who served as the Commander of the NATO International Security Assistance Force and the Commander of U.S. Forces Afghanistan from 2011 to 2013, the pivotal point in the war. He is the first Marine in history to command a theater of war, and is the longest serving commander in that conflict. Concluding a distinguished 38 year career in the spring of 2013, General Allen serves as Senior Advisor to the Secretary of Defense on Middle East Security, and has association with the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, the Atlantic Council, and Council on Foreign Relations. He holds numerous U.S. personal and international decorations, among them the: NATO Meritorious Service Medal; the Order of Australia; the Afghan Ghazi Mir Bacha Khan Medal; the French Legion d’Honneur; the Commander’s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Polish Republic; the Mongolian Meritorious Service Medal, First Class; and the Taiwan Order of the Resplendent Banner with Special Cravat.
Thad W. Allen, Executive Vice President, Booz|Allen|Hamilton, Inc.
Thad Allen serves as an Executive Vice President at Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. and the leader in the firm’s Departments of Justice and Homeland Security business in the civil market. He is known for his expertise in public-private sector collaborative efforts in addressing governmental regarding the future direction of law enforcement and homeland security. In May 2010, Allen completed his distinguished thirty-eight year career in the U.S. Coast Guard as its 23rd Commandant. In 2010, President Barack Obama selected Allen to serve as the National Incident Commander for the unified response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Prior to his assignment as Commandant, Allen served as Coast Guard Chief of Staff. During his tenure in that position, he was designated Principal Federal Official for the US Government’s response and recovery operations in the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Additionally, Admiral Allen was the first recipient of the Homeland Security Distinguished Service Medal and has been awarded three Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medals and the Legion of Merit. Allen also currently serves as a director on the Coast Guard Foundation and Partnership for Public Service.
Norman "Norm" Augustine, Former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Lockheed Martin Corp.
Norman “Norm” Augustine is the former Chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin Corporation. Mr. Augustine served as Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering in the office of the Secretary of Defense and both Assistant Secretary and Under Secretary of the Army, consecutively. In 1997, Mr. Augustine joined the faculty of the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science and served as a lecturer with the rank of professor until 1999. Mr. Augustine was a member of the Hart-Rudman Commission and was awarded the National Medal of Technology by President Bill Clinton, as well as being five times honored with the Defense Civilian Distinguished Service Medal.
Kenneth "Chuck" Canterbury, National President, Fraternal Order of Police
Kenneth “Chuck” Canterbury is the National President of the Fraternal Order of Police, the largest police labor organization in the country. Prior to his service as President, Mr. Canterbury spent 25 years with the Horry County Police Department of Conway, South Carolina. Mr. Canterbury worked in the Patrol Division, Criminal Investigations Division, and served as the Training Division Supervisor. Most recently, he served as Chief of the Operations Bureau. Mr. Canterbury has testified before Congress on a number of law enforcement issues and is a member of the National Medal of Valor Board.
Richard Danzig, Chairman for a New American Security
Dr. Richard Danzig is Vice Chair of the Board of Trustees of The RAND Corporation, a founding director and Fellow of The Center for a New American Security, a member of the Defense Policy Board and The President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, a Trustee of Reed College, and a Director of Saffron Hill Ventures (a European investment firm). Dr. Danzig was a professor of contract law at Stanford and Harvard Universities between 1972 and 1977, and was the Under Secretary of the Navy between 1993 and 1997. Dr. Danzig served as the 71st Secretary of the Navy from November 1998 to January 2001.
Ruth A. David, President and CEO, ANSER (Analytic Services, Inc.)
Dr. Ruth A. David is President and Chief Executive Officer of Analytic Services Inc., a nonprofit corporation that operates the Homeland Security Studies and Analysis Institute (HSSAI), a federally funded research and development center sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security and ANSER - a separate operating unit that supports national security missions. Before assuming her current position in 1998, Dr. David was Deputy Director for Science and Technology at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Previously, Dr. David served in several leadership positions at Sandia National Laboratories, where she began her professional career in 1975. Dr. David earned M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University, was inducted into the National Academy of Engineering in 2002, and earned the lifetime designation of National Associate for contributions to the work of the National Research Council. She currently serves on the National Science Board and the Defense Science Board in addition to the Homeland Security Advisory Council, and on advisory committees for Stevens Institute of Technology and Wichita State University.
Paul Goldenberg, President and CEO, Cardinal Point Strategies, LLC
Paul Goldenberg is the President and CEO of Cardinal Point Strategies (CPS), LLC, a strategic advisory and business intelligence consulting firm. Mr. Goldenberg also serves as the National Director of the Secure Community Network, the nation’s first faith-based information sharing analysis center recognized by DHS as the a national model. Mr. Goldenberg’s public career includes more than two decades as the first State Chief of the Office of Bias Crimes and Community Relations in New Jersey leading the nation’s first full time State Attorney General’s effort focusing on hate crimes and ethnic terrorism, Director of the nation’s 6th largest county social service and juvenile justice system, and as a law enforcement official leading investigation efforts for cases in domestic terrorism, political corruption, and organized crime. From 2004-2009, Mr. Goldenberg played a key role in setting policy for the legislation and investigation of ethnic terrorism and hate crimes in his role as senior law enforcement advisor to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In the course of his law enforcement career, Mr. Goldenberg received South Florida’s most distinguished citation for valor: Officer of the Year, an honor presented after serving as lead agent in one of South Florida’s longest term undercover assignments.
Lee H. Hamilton, Director, Center on Congress, Indiana University
Congressman Lee Hamilton is Director and founder of The Center on Congress at Indiana University. He served as President and Director of Woodrow Wilson International Center for scholars from 1999 to 2010. Congressman Hamilton represented Indiana's 9th congressional district from 1965 until January 1999. He served on the US Commission on National Security in the 21st Century; co-chaired the Baker-Hamilton Commission investigating security issues at Los Alamos; served as Vice-Chair of the 9/11 Commission; and co-chaired the Iraq Study Group. Congressman Hamilton serves on the President’s Intelligence Advisory Board, the FBI Director’s Advisory Board, the DHS Security Task Force on Preventing the Entry of Weapons of Mass Effect on American Soil, and the CIA External Advisory Board.
Jane Harman, President and CEO, Woodrow Wilson Center
Congresswoman Harman is the head of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, a Washington, D.C. think tank devoted to the ideals of former U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. Congresswoman Harman served in congress from 1993-1998 and 2001-2011. Following her resignation from Congress on February 28, 2011 she joined the Woodrow Wilson Center as its first female Director, President and CEO. During her nine terms in Congress she represented the aerospace center of California; she served on all the major security committees: six years on Armed Services, eight years on Intelligence and four on Homeland Security. Congresswoman Harman has made numerous congressional fact-finding missions to hotspots around the world including North Korea, Syria, Libya, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Yemen and Guantanamo Bay to assess threats against the U.S. Congresswoman Harman received the Defense Department Medal for Distinguished Service in 1998, the CIA Seal Medal in 2007, and the CIA Director’s Award and the National Intelligence Distinguished Public Service Medal in 2011.
Elizabeth Holtzman, Co-Chair of Herrick’s Government Relations Practice.
Elizabeth Liz Holtzman is Co-Chair of Herrick’s Government Relations Practice. She is the former Representative for New York (Brooklyn) who served on the 93rd to 96th Congress. While in office, she served on the House Judiciary Committee during the Watergate incident. Prior to entering office, she practiced law and managed parks and recreation as assistant to New York City Mayor John Lindsay. She also co-founded the Brooklyn Women’s Political Caucus. She was subsequently elected District Attorney of Kings County (Brooklyn), the only woman ever elected DA in New York City, in which she served for eight years. In May 2013, Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel appointed Holtzman to the Response Systems to Adult Sexual Assault Crimes Panel.
Jim Jones, Chairman and CEO, ManattJones Global Strategies
Ambassador James Jones is the Chairman and CEO of ManattJones Global Strategies. Ambassador Jones served as U.S. Ambassador to Mexico from 1993 to 1997. Ambassador Jones also served as President at Warnaco International and Chairman and CEO of the American Stock Exchange in New York from 1989 to 1993. As a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Oklahoma (1973-1987), he was Chairman of the House Budget Committee and Ranking Member of the House Ways and Means Committee. Ambassador Jones was only 28 years old when President Lyndon Johnson selected him as Appointments Secretary, the position presently titled Chief of Staff.
Gary Kelly, Chairman, President and CEO, Southwest Airlines
Gary Kelly serves as Chairman of the Board, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Southwest Airlines. Gary assumed his current roles in 2008 following stints as Chief Financial Officer, Vice President of Finance, Executive Vice President, and Vice-Chairman. Mr. Kelly is a 28-year Southwest veteran who began his career at Southwest Airlines as Controller, moving up to CFO and VP of Finance, then EVP and CFO, before being promoted to CEO and Vice Chairman in 2004. Mr. Kelly became Chairman and President in 2008. Mr. Kelly is a Certified Public Accountant; serves on the Board of Directors of the Lincoln National Corporation; and is Chairman of Airlines for America. Mr. Kelly previously served on the President’s Job Council. Corporation; and is Chairman of Airlines for America. Gary previously served on the President's Job Council. TOP OF PAGE
Carie Lemack, Cofounder of Global Survivors Network (GSN)
Carie Lemack is a cofounder of Global Survivors Network (GSN), a global organization for victims of terror to speak out against terrorism and radicalization. Ms. Lemack has coordinated and inspired events in Jordan, Pakistan, and Indonesia, produced an award-winning documentary film Killing in the Name, spearheaded a website, www.globalsurvivors.org, and generated interest and coverage in media outlets worldwide. Ms. Lemack cofounded and led the non-profit, non-partisan organization Families of September 11th. Ms. Lemack previously served on the HSAC’s Community Resilience Task Force.
Wilson “Bill” Livingood, President and Partner, Livingood Advisors, LLC
Wilson “Bill” Livingood is the President and Partner of Livingood Advisors, LLC. Mr. Livingood is an accomplished Senior Federal Law Enforcement Executive. His expertise is in all aspects of management, planning, leadership, operations, security, and emergency preparedness gained through 17 years as the U.S. Congress Sergeant-at-Arms and 33 years in the U.S. Secret Service. As the 36th Sergeant At Arms, of the U.S. House of Representatives and Mr. Livingood was the third longest serving Sergeant at Arms in U.S. history and was also appointed by both Republican and Democratic administrations. Many of his key positions at the U.S. Secret Service included: Presidential, Foreign Dignitary, and Candidate Protection; Criminal Investigation; Headquarters and Field Office Management; Senior Agent in Office of Inspection; and Senior Advisor to several Secret Service Directors.
Jane Holl Lute, President and CEO, Council on CyberSecurityand Former Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security
Jane Holl Lute is currently the President and CEO of the Council on CyberSecurity and the former Deputy Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security. Previously, Ms. Lute was Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations at the United Nations with responsibilities for comprehensive personnel, finance, and logistical support to mount, direct, and sustain UN field-based peace operations world-wide. A retired officer from the U.S. Army, Ms. Lute holds a PhD in Political Science from Stanford University and a J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center.
John Magaw, Consultant, Domestic and International Security
John Magaw is a freelance domestic and international security consultant who most recently served as the Under Secretary for Security at the Department of Transportation. Magaw has served as the Acting Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and led the Office of National Preparedness with FEMA. Mr. Magaw has also served as the Director of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and Director of the Secret Service.
Chief Walter McNeil, Past President, International Association of Chiefs of Police
Walter McNeil is the former Police Chief for the City of Quincy and past President of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. Chief McNeil has more than 29 years of law enforcement experience, serving as the Secretary of the Florida Department of Corrections, and head of the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. Prior to being selected to lead the above named agencies, he was the Chief of Police for the City of Tallahassee, Florida. Chief McNeil holds a Master’s Degree in Criminal Justice and a Bachelor’s Degree in Criminology. Chief McNeil is also a graduate of the FBI National Academy.
Bonnie S. Michelman, CPP, CHPA, Director of Police, Security and Outside Services at Massachusetts General Hospital and Security Consultant for Partners Healthcare Inc.
Bonnie Michelman has extensive leadership and security management experience in diverse industries. Mrs. Michelman currently is the Director of Police, Security and Outside Services at Massachusetts General Hospital and the Security Consultant for Partners Healthcare Inc. comprising 13 hospitals in Massachusetts. Mrs. Michelman was formerly District Manager at First Security Services overseeing 60 diverse operations and Assistant Vice President for General Services/Operations at Newton Wellesley Hospital managing 16 departments. Mrs. Michelman served as President in 2001 of ASIS-International, Chairman of the Board in 2002, and Foundation President from 2003-2005. Mrs. Michelman is a Past President (2008 and 1995)/Chairman of the Board of the International Association for Healthcare Security and Safety (IAHSS). Mrs. Michelman is currently on the Board of Directors for the International Security Management Association (ISMA) and instructor at Northeastern University, College of Criminal Justice in the Graduate and Undergraduate program. Bonnie is on the Regional Board of Directors for the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) and chairs their National Security Committee. Mrs. Michelman has an MBA, and MS in Criminal Justice and a BA in Government and Sociology.
Jeff Moss, Founder of Black Hat and DEFCON Conferences
Jeff Moss is the former Chief Security Officer and VP at Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Mr. Moss is the founder and creator of both the Black Hat Briefings and DEFCON, two of the most influential information security conferences in the world, attracting over ten thousand people from around the world to learn the latest in security technology from those researchers who create it. DEFCON just had its 21st anniversary. Prior to creating Black Hat Briefings, Mr. Moss was a director at Secure Computing Corporation where he helped establish their Professional Services Department in the United States, Asia, and Australia. Mr. Moss’ primary work was security assessments of large multi-national corporations. Mr. Moss has also worked for Ernst & Young, LLP in their Information System Security division. Because of this unique background Mr. Moss is uniquely qualified with his ability to bridge the gap between the underground researcher community and law enforcement, between the worlds of pure research and the responsible application of disclosure. Mr. Moss is a life member of the Council on Foreign Relations, which is an independent, nonpartisan membership organization, think tank, and publisher. In 2013 Mr. Moss was appointed as a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Atlantic Council, associated with the Cyber Statecraft Initiative, within the Brent Scowcroft Center on International Security.
Annise Danette Parker, Mayor, City of Houston, Texas
Annise Parker is Houston’s 61st mayor and one of only two women to hold the City’s highest elected office. Mayor Parker was an at-large member of the Houston City Council from 1998 to 2003 and city controller from 2004 to 2009. Mayor Parker also previously served as a Houston City Council Member and six years as city Controller. Mayor Parker is the only person in Houston history to hold the offices of council member, controller and mayor. Mayor Parker is also a member of the Criminal and Social Justice Committee for the United States Conference of Mayors. In addition to her duties as mayor, Parker is a member of President Obama’s Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, chairs the U.S. Conference of Mayors Criminal and Social Justice Committee, serves as a member of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Secretary’s Advisory Council and on the boards of the Texas Environmental Research Consortium and Houston Galveston Area Council. She is an advisory board member of the Holocaust Museum, Center for Houston’s Future and Montrose Center. Mayor Parker graduated from Rice University with a Bachelor of Arts Degree.
Charles “Chuck” Ramsey, Police Commissioner, City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Charles H. Ramsey is the Commissioner of the Philadelphia Police Department. He leads the fourth largest police department in the nation with over 6,500 sworn members and 830 civilian members. Commissioner Ramsey brings over forty years of knowledge, experience and service in advancing the law enforcement profession in three different major city police departments, beginning with Chicago, then Washington, DC, and now Philadelphia. In 2007, Commissioner Ramsey was a security consultant to the Washington, D.C. Convention Center and the United States Senate Sergeant of Arms. Commissioner Ramsey headed a prominent group of law enforcement professionals to review the state of Iraqi police forces for a report to the United States Congress, an effort which garnered international attention and praise.
Harold A. Schaitberger, General President, International Association of Firefighters
Harold A. Schaitberger is General President of the International Association of Fire Fighters, representing more than 300,000 professional fire fighters and emergency medical personnel in the United States and in Canada. Mr. Schaitberger began his career as a professional fire fighter in Fairfax County, Virginia, and rose to the rank of lieutenant. He helped organize what was then a 500-member department as an IAFF affiliate. In 1970 he was elected the first president of Fairfax County Local 2068. In 1973, he was elected president of the Virginia Professional Fire Fighters. Prior to his election as General President in 2000, Mr. Schaitberger served as a top advisor to three IAFF presidents. He came to the IAFF in 1976 to create the union’s national political and legislative programs. He played a key role in the creation of the Public Safety Officers Benefit, enactment of the FLSA overtime law and the passing of the NFPA 1710 Standard governing the deployment and staffing of professional departments. Mr. Schaitberger also secured federal funds to create the IAFF Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction training programs. Under President Schaitberger’s leadership, the IAFF’s Political Action Committee, FIREPAC, ranks among the top PACs in the nation. His commitment to supporting candidates and lawmakers who are friendly to fire fighters and their issues, regardless of political party, has significantly enhanced the union’s power and influence at all levels of politics.
Ali Soufan, Chief Executive Officer, The Soufan Group LLC
Ali Soufan is the Chief Executive Officer of The Soufan Group LLC. Mr. Soufan is a former FBI Supervisory Special Agent who investigated and supervised highly sensitive and complex international terrorism cases, including the East Africa Embassy Bombings, the attack on the USS Cole, and the events surrounding 9/11. Mr. Soufan served on the Joint Terrorist Task Force and with the FBI's New York Office, where he coordinated both domestic and international counterterrorism operations. Mr. Soufan is the author of The New York Times Top 10 Bestseller, "The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against al Qaeda" and a recipient of the Ridenhour Book Prize.
Lydia W. Thomas, Former President and CEO, Noblis, Inc.
Dr. Lydia Thomas is the retired President and Chief Executive Officer of Noblis, Inc. Prior to Noblis, Dr. Thomas was with MITRE Corp. where she held a series of technical and management positions spanning the areas of energy, environment, health, and communication systems. Dr. Thomas is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Dr. Thomas also served as the Vice Chair of the Board of Trustees, Chair of the Committee on Academic Affairs and on the Advisory Board of the Research and Technology Campus of the George Washington University. Dr. Thomas holds a Doctor of Philosophy in Cytology from Howard University, 1973; a Master of Science in Microbiology from American University, 1971; and a Bachelor of Science in Zoology from Howard University, 1965.
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