Technology Resources

Technology Resources

Technology is a critical tool for improving interoperability that should meet the needs of practitioners on the front lines and should address regional needs, existing infrastructure, cost verses benefits, and sustainability. The resources below provide examples of the technology currently used in the public safety environment.

Technology Policy Resources - September 2016
The Technology Policy Resources booklet contains several documents (listed below) developed by the Technology Policy Committee.

Alerts and Warnings

Wireless Emergency Alerts - General
Provides an overview of the Wireless Emergency Alerts, which is part of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Integrated Public Alert and Warning System.

Wireless Emergency Alerts - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation
Provides an overview of the Wireless Emergency Alerts Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation program, which enhances the national capability to deliver geographically targeted alert messages to mobile devices.


Guidelines for Encryption in Land Mobile Radio Systems
As a result from a number of security risk and vulnerability assessments, the public safety community has recognized the increasing effort to protect sensitive information transmitted over its wireless communications systems. The purpose of this document is to provide information that should be considered when evaluating encryption solutions to minimize the possibility of sensitive information being monitored, but are concerned with the cost of standards compliant encryption.

Best Practices for Encryption in P25 Public Safety Land Mobile Radio Systems
This document addresses methods to improve cross-agency coordination and emphasizes the use of standards-based encryption to enhance secure interoperability and minimize the risk of compromising sensitive information.

Developing Methods to Improve Encrypted Interoperability in Public Safety Communications Fact Sheet
This document highlights best practices of key management necessary to allow encrypted operability and interoperability. These best practices are important in developing system security where encrypted interoperability is realizable. Additionally, significant planning and coordination must be undertaken to achieve encrypted interoperability on a national scale. 

Considerations for Encryption in Public Safety Radio Systems
This document examines the complex issues of why encryption may be needed during critical operations of an urgent or time-sensitive nature or when open communications may not be sufficient to protect personally identifiable and/or sensitive information. This document provides guidance to public safety users through a process to assess the need for encryption as well as the questions that must be considered.

Determining the Need for Encryption in Public Safety Radios Fact Sheet
This document provides a high-level overview of all the factors public safety agencies and departments should thoroughly discuss and carefully considered before reaching a decision to encrypt their public safety radio systems.


Interoperability Continuum: A tool for Improving Emergency Response Communications and Interoperability
The Interoperability Continuum provides a graphical depiction to demonstrate the five critical success factors to achieving interoperability. This tool also provides a framework from which all emergency response agencies at the Federal, State, local, and tribal levels could use to baseline their planning and implementation of interoperability solutions.

Moving Towards Credentialing Interoperability
Provides information to non-Federal organization and their decision makers about the value of strong credentialing practices using Federal standards.

Office for Interoperability and Compatibility (OIC) Fact Sheet
Provides background on OIC, which was established in 2004 to strengthen and integrate interoperability and compatibility efforts in order to improve Federal, State, local, and tribal emergency response and preparedness.

Operational Guide for the Interoperability Continuum: Lessons Learned and RapidCom
At the Urban Area Summit in 2004, participants convened to share best practices, lessons learned, and other experiences gained from planning and implementing communications interoperability solutions. This report shares the valuable information learned from that meeting and provides a framework for communities and regions to use in their communications interoperability planning efforts.

Priority Telecommunications Services for First Responders
The Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Cybersecurity and Infrastrucutre Security (CISA) Emergency Communications Division (ECD) provides the following services to federal, state, local, territorial and tribal emergency personnel, as well as industry personnel, to ensure ongoing communications under all circumstances: Government Emergency Telecommunications Services (GETS), Wireless Priority Services (WPS), and Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP).

SAFECOM: The Road to Interoperability
This pamphlet describes the practical use of the Interoperability Continuum and its scalable ability to fit many types of disaster response.
Technology Guide for Communications Interoperability: A Guide for Interagency Communications Projects
Provides background on communications interoperability and tools to carry out technology initiatives that make interoperability possible.

Inter-RF Subsystem Interface (ISSI) Fact Sheet
This document provides an overview of the Inter-RF Subsystem Interface (ISSI), which provides a standards-based connection between two or more Project 25 (P25) networks to form a “system of systems.” An ISSI can be an invaluable tool to enhance interoperability, extend coverage, and permit system-to-system roaming between partnering agencies and increases the efficiency and reliability of interoperable communications during emergency response and daily operations.

Land Mobile Radio and Broadband

DHS S&T Modeling and Analysis for Public Safety Broadband
With legislation establishing the First Responder Network Authority, this document takes a look at the analysis needed to being planning for a national public safety broadband network.

The Hybrid Public Safety Microphone “Turtle Mike”
Introduces the Hybrid Public Safety Microphone, or “Turtle Mike,” which enhances legacy radio system capabilities by allowing the use of commercial broadband networks for improved communications interoperability.

Interoperability Planning for Wireless Broadband
Created in coordination with the emergency response community, this document assists Statewide Interoperability Coordinators with planning for wireless broadband use in emergency communications.

Inter Radio Frequency (RF) Subsystem Interface (ISSI) Technology: Interconnecting Networks
Provides a quick overview of the ISSI Technology.

Objective Speech Quality Estimates for P25/TLE Interconnections
Summarizes the key information collected throughout the Rapid Emergency-Level Interim Communications Interoperability (RapidCom) initiative.

Public Safety Communications Evolution Brochure
OEC developed this brochure in collaboration with SAFECOM and the National Council of Statewide Interoperability Coordinators (NCSWIC), with the support and input of public safety officials to help educate the public safety community and elected and appointed officials about the future of emergency communications.

T-Band Giveback White Paper
Created by SAFECOM and NCSWIC, this document provides the implications for the public safety community and the effects of the Public Law 112-96 to recover and auction T-Band spectrum.

Video Quality in Public Safety Initiatives
Provides an overview of the Video Quality in Public Safety initiative, which provides information and support to first responders so they can articulate their own video quality needs.

Wireless Communications Interoperability Awareness Guide
Explains what public safety interoperability is and the issues that impede interoperable communications.

Wireless Communications Security Awareness Guide
Explains the need to ensure secure communications, facilities, and networks for emergency responders.

Wireless Communications Standards Awareness Guide
Explains the importance of open standards in wireless emergency response communications.

Request For Proposal (RFP) Best Practices for Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Subscriber Units Fact Sheet (Do's and Don'ts Document)
This document provides high-level best practices the public safety community should consider when planning and developing LMR subscriber unit RFPs.

Request for Information (RFI) and Request for Proposal (RFP) for Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Subscriber Units Roles and Responsibilities
This document outlines the roles and responsibilities which the public safety community should consider when creating a team to plan, develop, issue LMR subscriber unit RFPs.


NG911 Cybersecurity Primer

NG911 Cybersecurity Primer
The Next Generation 9-1-1 (NG911) Cybersecurity Primer provides an overview of the cyber risks that will be faced by NG911 systems. It is intended to serve only as an informational tool for system administrators to better understand the full scope and range of potential risks, as well as recommend mitigations to these risks.  Developed by the DHS CISA ECD in conjunction with the Department of Transportation, the Primer is an introduction to improving the cybersecurity posture of NG911 systems nationwide.

Project 25

Public safety Interoperability Implications of non-P25 Radio Technologies
This product discusses some of the available non-Project 25 (P25) radio technologies that some public safety organizations might consider to support their operations. It examines the possible benefits of these technologies, as well as the potential implications they might impose on interoperability within the public safety communications community.

Communications Resiliency

Public Safety Communications Resiliency: Ten Keys to Obtaining a Resilient Local Access Network
Ten Keys to Obtaining a Resilient and Route Diverse Local Access Network helps organizations mitigate threats to communications continuity and supports resilient, “always available communications.” This document presents ten key steps organizations can follow to determine if local network infrastructure communication paths are sufficiently diverse to minimize communications outages.

Public Safety Communications Resiliency Guidebook
Complete end-to-end network resilience is difficult to achieve, but an organization can greatly improve “always available” communications by identifying and mitigating resilience issues through a self-assessment of its local access network.  The Public Safety Communications Network Resiliency Self-Assessment Guidebook provides instructions on how to assess resiliency of a public safety communications network, describes common critical resiliency gaps in public safety networks, proposes mitigation solutions for assured communications in stressed network environments, and demonstrates a proven methodology for data gathering, connectivity mapping, and analysis. CISA ECD recommends use of the Guidebook for organizations performing resiliency self-assessments of their critical facilities.

Resiliency Fact Sheet
The Resiliency Fact Sheet introduces the topic of communications continuity, and discusses the importance of network resiliency.  The Fact Sheet provides the available resources to (1) establish a process to assess threats and vulnerabilities to communications networks, (2) enable organizations to conduct self-assessments and (3) identify mitigation solutions.  It also conveys the benefits of performing a resiliency self-assessment.

For additional information on public safety communications resiliency, please contact CISA ECD at

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