Blog

December 3, 2018
9:36 am

Everyday across the nation, our first responders answer calls for help. We’ve all witnessed the heroic, coordinated efforts to respond to the California wildfires, the heartbreak of all-too-frequent active shooter incidents, and the daily dedication of law enforcement, fire fighters, and emergency medical services (EMS) to keep our communities safe and secure.

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and TechnologyThrough it all, most of us rarely consider the technology first responders use to fulfill their mission and how that technology must work and integrate seamlessly into their operations to help them face increasingly dangerous threats.

DHS S&T’s Next Generation First Responder Apex Program (NGFR) works with public safety agencies to ensure the technology we research and develop for responders is not only innovative but has the capability to integrate with agencies’ existing technology. Beyond simply aiding responders in their mission, this technology can ultimately keep our responders better protected, connected and fully aware.

Over the past year, DHS S&T has worked with local Houston, Texas, public safety agencies and the U.S. Coast Guard to assess some of their technical needs. We asked these responders what threats kept them up at night, what capabilities they wish they had, and how we could improve upon their existing technology. Working with the agencies that helped Houston survive Hurricane Harvey, their priorities were improving operational communication, operational coordination, responder safety and overall situational awareness. The NGFR program team partnered with industry and worked tirelessly to address these concerns.

This week, DHS S&T heads to Houston where we’re working with public safety and industry partners to demonstrate the operational value of cutting-edge first responder technologies during the NGFR – Harris County Operational Experimentation (OpEx). Using open standards and guidance from the NGFR Integration Handbook, the OpEx will evaluate how DHS-developed, commercial, and existing first responder technologies will integrate during a multi-jurisdictional coordinated response to a HAZMAT scenario at the Port of Houston.

The goal of this OpEx is to advance first responder innovation by showcasing the promise and potential of the next generation first responder. To do this, DHS S&T and partners will assess the integration of Internet of Things sensors into advanced situational awareness platforms, investigate the technical requirements of a coordinated response during a disaster, and demonstrate how integrated solutions deliver greater operational impact for public safety agencies across the nation.

This is a great endeavor and could not have been accomplished without the time and dedication from our Houston-area and Harris County public safety agency and industry partners for their time, dedication, and determination for a successful exercise. Homeland security begins with hometown security. It is partnerships like these that help us show the world the future of first responder technology.

November 19, 2018
8:52 am

From power grids to communications systems, critical infrastructure is the backbone of American society, economy, security, and health. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) enables effective, efficient, and secure operations across all homeland security missions by applying scientific, engineering, analytic, and innovative approaches to deliver timely solutions and support departmental acquisitions. Yet implementing William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.even the best technologies can be a challenge, especially in remote locations or when aging legacy systems are in place.

So how do we ensure new critical infrastructure technologies are deployment-ready and effective? The key to this challenge is in testing.

Testing new critical infrastructure solutions is different than testing other technologies. Critical infrastructure failures can be devastating. Water quality, power grids, and transportation all rely on the efficacy and safety of technologies that support and make up those critical infrastructure sectors. This is why new solutions must work in conjunction with existing security redundancies. There cannot be weak links in the protection of our nation’s infrastructure.

To rise to this challenge, S&T has taken steps to diversify its testing methodology, which has resulted in an increase in testing in operational settings.

Testing in an operational setting means new technologies are tested in the operational environment in which it will be deployed. Using synthetic data, we test a technology’s functionality with environmental factors—such as terrain, power resources and legacy technology—effecting performance, enabling a more accurate evaluation of a technology’s viability for deployment. When technologies don’t perform as planned, developers are able to tweak and then re-test their work to create a better product.

S&T’s Silicon Valley Innovation Program (SVIP) embraces this practice, making testing in an operational setting a critical component of the development process. SVIP works with startups and small businesses to bring cutting-edge technologies into the Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE).

Startups and small businesses are often unfamiliar with DHS operations and how their technology can enhance our work. Through testing in an operational setting with SVIP, these companies gain a better insight into the needs of end-users.

Testing new technologies in a rigorous, realistic environment not only provides insight into effectively addressing HSE needs, it also facilitates collaboration between the companies developing solutions and potential end-users.

Collaboration while testing critical infrastructure products in an operational setting is key. Doing so gives end-users, such as DHS Components, the opportunity to provide feedback on a solution, which enables our portfolio companies to better customize their products to real-life needs and create effective solutions.

Critical Infrastructure and Resilience Month, observed throughout November, builds awareness and appreciation of the importance of critical infrastructure and reaffirms the nationwide commitment to keep our critical infrastructure and our communities safe and secure.  I look forward to S&T’s continued innovation in testing methods so we can better provide new technologies to the HSE and keep this nation—and its critical infrastructure—safe.

November 13, 2018
8:41 am

This November, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) recognizes the importance of increasing the resilience of our most core societal functions in an ever-changing technological landscape.October was Cybersecurity Awareness month, and it leads us into this month’s critical infrastructure focus with good reason: cyber innovation is forever transforming how the 16 essential sectors of critical infrastructure are managed.

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.Commercial facilities, transportation, healthcare, financial services, nuclear reactors and government facilities, to mention a few, are all things the average citizen relies on to function each day. They are all susceptible to cyber attacks, and they still need the resilience to withstand other natural and manmade catastrophes.

Here are a few noteworthy S&T efforts that have directly impacted our nation’s critical infrastructure this year.

SAFETY Act – The S&T Office of SAFETY Act Implementation, responsible for approving anti-terrorism technologies for insurance coverage under the Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies (SAFETY) Act, approved its 1000th technology this year. Thanks to the SAFETY Act, various sports facilities, malls and other commercial buildings can maintain state-of-the-art security systems, and citizens can enjoy walking about those facilities feeling protected.

Flood Sensors Our Flood Apex program has continued to collaborate with communities around the country to ensure they can be prepared in the event of a storm surge. We have partnered with industry and local emergency managers to install flood sensors that alert first responder agencies of rising water levels and collect data, powering efforts to reduce future flood damage. Data from our sensors in Mecklenberg County, North Carolina, has served as the backbone for the Flood Information and Notification System, and this effort continues to expand to other regions. With such devastating hurricanes making their mark between 2017 and 2018, many communities will rely on better data to get them through these seasons.

Decision Support System for Water Infrastructure Security (DSS-WISE) Also in the realm of flood-proofing, S&T has created a modeling and simulation tool for dam failure situations. DSS-WISE provides communities with a course of action in these events, simulating potential inundation zones, informing evacuation processes and repair strategies. This added preparation saves communities thousands of dollars in dam safety studies, and millions in damages. It also saves lives. Efforts to improve DSS-WISE have been underway through S&T’s partnership with the University of Mississippi’s National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering (NCCHE).

Cyber Risk Economics (CYRIE) – Through the CYRIE project, S&T coordinates high-level research and development efforts in cybersecurity. These involve modeling and evaluating different economic aspects of cyber threats to improve the cybersecurity posture of Homeland Security Enterprise partners. This year, S&T invested in a forecasting platform to update critical infrastructure owners on the latest cybersecurity tools available to them. CYRIE continues to help S&T and our collaborators deliver optimal cyber risk management incentives for public and private sector organizations. Recently, we released our Cyber Risk Economics Capability Gaps Research Strategy, which we hope will help close the gap between research and practice by apprising the research community of real-world cyber risk economics challenges, and, ultimately, inform evidence-based policy and actions by industry and government.

What we all need

Whether you live in the city or the country, near the beach or at the foot of a mountain, the nation’s critical infrastructure is the backbone of your community. A weakness in one sector could easily be a weakness in another. As cyber innovation continues to bridge these different sectors together into a holistic network, homeland security depends, more than ever, on our shared consideration of each one and how it factors into the big picture.

November 5, 2018
8:34 am

When you think of our nation’s critical infrastructure, what comes to mind? Is it the structures that protect our physical borders? The wheels of industry that keep our economy in motion? The networks that keep our lines of communication open and energy flowing? Or maybe the roads and highways that take us to and from our jobs, our homes and other daily destinations?

Willia N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and TechnologyThe answer, of course, is all of the above—and then some. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has identified 16 critical infrastructure sectors that are vital to our nation’s well-being. The DHS Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) takes securing our nation’s critical infrastructure quite seriously, working across these sectors to arm those who protect and serve with tools and research to keep our structures, systems and citizens safe.

As Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Month kicks off, I want to talk about one component of infrastructure in particular—our schools—and a new technology S&T just released that will help protect not only the physical buildings, but also the individuals within them. The Enhanced Dynamic Geo-Social Environment, or EDGE, is a virtual training platform that allows educators and first responders to collaboratively plan responses for a number of threat scenarios, anything from classroom disturbances to bomb threats or an active shooter on campus.

S&T worked with the U.S. Army Simulation and Training Technology Center and Cole Engineering Services, Inc. to create an environment where users can improve and reinforce coordination, communication and critical decision-making skills in a safe space, so if the unthinkable does happen, everyone will know where to go and what to do.

To accomplish this, EDGE leverages the latest video gaming technology (think: Fortnite) with avatars representing, and controlled by, a number of real-life players: teachers, administrators, school resource officers, local law enforcement and more. But EDGE isn’t a game. There are no winners, losers or high scores, and there is no competition, just learning. EDGE is only available to verified education and first response agencies as part of a comprehensive training curriculum—the better prepared they are, the safer our schools will be.

Education institutions are vital to our nation’s critical infrastructure. They are where we feed the minds of the future leaders of industry, medicine, sports, science, education, homeland security and much, much more. As I mentioned in our recent announcement about EDGE’s availability , S&T does not pull any punches when it comes to the security of our students. Anytime we can make a tool available that can help to keep them safe—and offer it for free—well, that is winning.

For more information about EDGE and how to obtain access, visit https://www.dhs.gov/science-and-technology/EDGE or contact first.responder@hq.dhs.gov.

October 1, 2018
2:28 pm

Today marks the start of National Cyber Security Awareness Month, also known as NCSAM. Since 2004, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has recognized October as NCSAM to promote cybersecurity awareness and safety tips, ultimately changing behaviors to protect people against cyber threats.  

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.Our off- and online lives are increasingly blurred. There is no escaping the reality that our homes, economic prosperity and national security are impacted by the internet. Starting today, the DHS Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) will explore weekly themes to help you become #CyberAware.

Week 1 (October 1–5) Make Your Home a Haven for Online Safety

Every day, parents and caregivers teach kids basic safety practices. Easy-to-learn life lessons for online safety and privacy begin with parents leading the way. S&T will provide basic cybersecurity tips to protect your home against potential cybersecurity threats stemming from online shopping and sharing too much personal information on social media. 

Week 2 (October 8–12) Millions of Rewarding Jobs: Educating for a Career in Cybersecurity

A key risk to our economy and security continues to be the shortage of cybersecurity professionals to safeguard our ever-expanding cyber ecosystem. S&T’s Cybersecurity Competitions program funds efforts that engage high school and college students in cybersecurity competition challenges. One of our successfully transitioned efforts, the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition (NCCDC), challenges teams of college students to operate and manage a corporate network infrastructure. This effort’s objective is to educate and inspire the next generation of cybersecurity defenders.

Week 3 (October 15–19) It’s Everyone’s Job to Ensure Online Safety at Work

An organization’s online safety and security is a shared responsibility across the workforce. This week S&T will explore cybersecurity best practices for the workplace like recognizing phishing attempts, securing Internet of Things devices and identifying software vulnerabilities.

Week 4 (October 22–26) Safeguarding the Nation’s Critical Infrastructure

Our daily lives depend on the country’s 16 sectors of critical infrastructure, which supply food, water, financial services, public health, communications and power along with other networks and systems. Several of S&T’s cybersecurity research and development (R&D) programs focus on securing our critical infrastructure:

Throughout NCSAM, I encourage you to follow our Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn to help keep you cyber savvy! During the month, we will share tips and program highlights using #CyberAware and #NCSAM. For more information about NCSAM events, visit our page

September 27, 2018
12:22 pm

This week, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) co-hosted an outreach event with the Congressional Smart Cities Caucus to highlight how new technology can support hurricane resilience and save lives. The event was particularly poignant given the ongoing response and recovery efforts in the Carolinas following Hurricane Florence. My heart goes out to those whose lives have been turned upside down by the storm and subsequent flooding.William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.

 It is a sobering reminder of the ongoing threat hurricanes pose to the U.S., and how important it is to ensure communities have the tools they need to respond and recover to these disasters.

Given the size and scope of this challenge, S&T partners with innovators across government, industry and academia to develop new technologies and knowledge solutions that can improve the nation’s ability to prepare for, respond to and recover from hurricanes. This week’s event brought together members of Congress, DHS components, public safety stakeholders and S&T experts to showcase solutions already having an impact, as well as ongoing efforts that will build on this success.

Before a hurricane makes landfall, officials can use Hurricane Evacuation (HURREVAC) eXtended (HV-X), Advanced CIRCulation (ADCRIC), and Simulation-Based Decision Support System for Water Infrastructure Safety (DSS-WISE) Lite™ tools to simulate and visualize the potential impacts of storm surge and flooding on local communities. This insight can inform evacuation and resource-staging decisions, which save lives. S&T is also developing a specific Port Disruption Assessment Tool to help decision maker minimize the economic impacts of hurricanes, as well as an Internet Outage Detection resource that visualizes internet outages to guide response efforts.

To make communication easier and more effective during response, public safety can use the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), datacasting technology, ResponderCQ, and Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT). These resources allow teams to share real-time location information, track assets and securely send large data packages when cellular networks are overwhelmed or knocked out due to the storm. We’ve also developed a Digital Volunteer Guide and the ability to analyze open source and social media data streams to provide surge support when response agencies resources are stretched thin, which helps turn vast amounts of social media posts into actionable insight.

Finally, S&T is developing new ways to equip communities with resources and knowledge to improve flood protection. The Port and Waterway Resiliency, Historical Flood Extents, Internet of Things Low-Cost Flood Inundation Sensors, and National Resilience Standards for Flood Proofing Products efforts will provide analytical tools and evaluation methods that officials can use to better mitigate hurricane damage to important waterways and critical infrastructure systems. These resources will also provide more accurate information about floods to inform alerts and warnings.

I encourage you to learn more about how these technologies are making an impact by exploring the latest installment of the S&T Impact series on Disaster Resilience. Also, remember to follow S&T on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn for the latest updates on resilience technology and opportunities to partner with us.

September 4, 2018
9:50 am

Today, critical services like energy and water systems, mobile banking and transportation systems are dependent on reliable connectivity and secure operation of the internet. Our increased internet dependence has presented a new wave of challenges for network providers and defenders. Disrupted internet connectivity has severe implications for essential aspects of our daily lives, however, we know very little about their causes, mitigation and prevention.

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.Network/internet-scale disruptive events (NIDEs) may cause a loss or degradation of network (not necessarily internet) service and often follow natural disasters, geo-political events or the mass scale re-routing of internet traffic. The internet’s enormity makes defining, reporting and attributing NIDEs very difficult for network defenders.

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) recently initiated the Predict, Assess Risk, Identify (and Mitigate) Disruptive Internet-scale Network Events (PARIDINE) program. We are funding five organizations to develop innovative technologies that will reveal more about NIDEs.

*  Define NIDEs by quantifiable metrics and classifications
*  Develop analysis methodologies and techniques to sense and identify NIDEs
*  Create NIDE-related documentation for external tools and analysis
*  Determine what caused the NIDE, with a measure of how good the attribution is

One example of a NIDE we are studying is Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) hijacking. BGP routes traffic across the internet, and all networks connected to the internet rely on BGP to reach other networks. Researchers will measure BGP and examine connectivity issues caused by BGP hijacking. BGP hijacking occurs when a malicious attacker uses false network routing information to distort the internet’s common routing system. Incidents of these hijackings have blocked or derailed internet access for millions of people at a time.

PARIDINE will generate useful and actionable NIDE information for network operators, emergency management personnel and continuity-of-operations planners using these novel innovative solutions:

          *  Developing a framework that will perform near real-time NIDEs monitoring
          *  Identifying NIDES in  9-1-1 and other public safety and emergency communications systems
          *  Detecting NIDEs within a network or system
          *  Developing root-cause attribution of NIDEs
          *  Developing a system for internet-scale monitoring of router-reboots and their impact on BGP routing and reachability

These solutions will enhance the ability to identify and report disruptive events that could potentially harm our nation’s networks and critical systems. Through PARIDINE, we look forward to identifying internet outages faster and determining how they occur. We already has several potential customers including the Federal Communications Commission and the National Protection and Programs Directorate’s Office of Emergency Communications. For more information, please visit PARIDINE’s webpage.

August 20, 2018
12:25 pm

The nation’s critical infrastructure provides necessary services that are vital to our everyday lives. We know these services as the power we use in our homes, the water we drink, the transportation that moves us, and the communications systems we use to make personal or business transactions. These services are made up of complex networks that we strive to keep resilient and secure when faced with threats from cyber adversaries.  

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.DHS is responsible for protecting the majority of the 16 critical infrastructure sectors, and even when we are not the named Sector-Specific Agency (SSA), we are partnering with agencies to offer solutions to keep our nation safe. 

One example is the Financial Services Sector. The Department of Treasury is the SSA, however DHS Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) has developed the Next Generation Cyber Infrastructure (NGCI) Apex program (Cyber Apex) to provide cybersecurity solutions to this sector. Through the Cyber Apex program, S&T has partnered with the Department of Treasury to engage financial services organizations and encourage participation in the Cyber Apex Review Team, also known as the CART.

The goal of the Cyber Apex Program is to reduce vulnerability gaps within the finance sector.  The CART assists DHS by defining and prioritizing requirements, planning and reviewing test and evaluation activities, and reviewing suitable technologies and methodologies.

The Cyber Apex program addresses cybersecurity challenges by providing the financial services sector with technologies and tools to confront advanced adversaries by leveraging existing federally funded and private sector research efforts. Cyber Apex uses a flexible, repeatable technology development approach with two distinct phases, applied research and test and evaluation. 

Specifically, the program conducts needs analysis, metrics identification, technology foraging, solicitation creation, proposal selection, and test and evaluation. Based on the results, CART members have the option to conduct further testing, funded by DHS, in their own operational environments. 

Currently, the CART is a mix of large banks and financial institutions, however S&T is expanding the group to mid-sized and regional banks to increase knowledge and information sharing. As members of the CART, financial organizations will have the opportunity to identify cybersecurity gaps, review research findings and receive recommended solutions to help keep networks and systems safe from cyber threats.

To date, the Cyber Apex program is researching four efforts—detecting lateral movement within a network, gaining knowledge of artifacts on the network, improving analytical sharing methods and protecting sensitive data—but, as new capability gaps arise the program will add new research efforts. 

If you are a financial services organization, I highly encourage you to join the CART. In addition to the valuable insight you can provide S&T, you will be provided solutions to keep the financial services sector, including your organization, safe. For more information visit the Cyber Apex program page or email the Cyber Apex team at CyberApex@hq.dhs.gov.

August 13, 2018
1:02 pm

Last week, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) attended the annual Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) Expo. During our three days at the event, S&T staff met several members of the public safety and industry communities who are working hard to develop reliable, interoperable and secure communications for responders.

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary for Science and Technology.APCO is a great reminder of the real-world impact technology has for the men and women who keep our communities safe, and how communications capabilities are the backbone for effective response. That’s why I was pleased S&T could join forces with the DHS Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) at the event to emphasize how the entire Department stands behind our nation’s public safety officials and volunteers. S&T and OEC both coordinate directly with stakeholders to understand their needs, and then use that information to provide specialized support, in the form of trusted research and development from S&T, and technical assistance and training opportunities from OEC. All of DHS is committed to ensuring those serving on the front lines of America’s homeland security can perform their duties safely and effectively.

DHS S&T program managers and partners presented on some of our key research areas, including the Next Generation First Responder Apex program, our work countering jamming and cyber threats to public safety communications, and advanced video analytics.  In addition, S&T held the quarterly Project 25 Compliance Assessment Program Advisory Panel meeting to take advantage of the stakeholders gathered at the show. These engagements provided useful recommendations, ongoing project updates, and an opportunity for stakeholders nationwide to give us feedback to improve our programs.

Some of the technologies S&T showcased at APCO provided a sense of how communications are evolving based on influences from broadband technology and the Internet of Things. For example, the Assistant for Understanding Data through Reasoning, Extraction and Synthesis (AUDREY) is an artificial intelligence system that helps users process visual data in real-time to identify what’s most pertinent in a given situation – it could help highlight where a person is in a low-visibility setting, or help identify environmental hazards to better protect responders.

Another tool to help keep responders safe is the Burn Saver Thermal Sensor, a small device clipped to a firefighter’s gear that automatically alerts them when the surrounding temperature reaches dangerous levels that could impact their personal protective equipment. Automatic alerts are becoming an increasingly important capability for public safety, where having timely information can mean the difference between life and death.

Making sure the right people have the right information at the right time is a priority for public safety and S&T. For this reason, we convened a working group and developed the Information Sharing Assessment Tool (ISAT), which helps responder agencies identify their current information sharing practices and identify areas they can improve. This free questionnaire can help establish a baseline of current communications capabilities and track progress over time as users take it again in the future. As the saying goes, you don’t know what you don’t know, and the ISAT was designed to help provide that vital insight.

If you’re interested in learning more about the ways we’re supporting public safety communications and other capabilities, I encourage you to explore S&T’s First Responder work. I also want to sincerely thank everyone who stopped by the DHS booth to discuss how S&T’s work could help public safety or identify new opportunities to partner on cutting-edge research and development. You can keep the conversation going by checking our website for the latest news on technology and business opportunities, and remember to follow us on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn for regular updates.

July 31, 2018
10:04 am

First responders around the globe share a common mission to ensure the safety and security of the people they serve and protect. With ever evolving and emerging threats comes the need for responders to share best practices and find equipment and technologies to respond safely and efficiently.

William N. Bryan, Senior Official Performing the Duties of the Under Secetary for Science and Technology.The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) seeks to enhance and expand the development of affordable, innovative technology for the global first responder community by supporting and engaging first responders and industry. Launched by S&T, the International Forum to Advance First Responder Innovation (IFAFRI) is an international initiative aimed to close the capability gaps for first responders globally.  This is accomplished by working with first responders from 13 IFAFRI member countries to define common, high priority operational requirements and analyzing market and industry data surrounding technologies that can address these requirements.

Join me Thursday, August 9, at the IFAFRI Stakeholder Summit at the National Association of Home Builders, located at 1201 15th St NW, Washington, DC 20005. The Summit will center around working and collaborating with the homeland security industrial base to provide critical information on high priority capability gaps in the global first responder market. This important event will highlight global needs, allowing industry to align development of technology and solutions to real-world requirements.

I would like to personally invite members of government, private sector, academia, federal laboratories, industry and innovation community to attend this Summit to capitalize on an opportunity to engage and network with industry professionals, as well as local first responders. The goal is to provide the international first responder community with the best tools to accomplish their missions safely, effectively and efficiently. Attendees should register for this event by visiting http://www.cvent.com/d/3gqfv1. I hope to see you there.

Current capability gaps, as identified by IFAFRI and first responder market analysis publications, can be found here: https://internationalresponderforum.org/

If you have any questions about the event, please contact us at info@internationalresponderforum.org by August 7, 2018, 2:00 p.m. EDT.

 

 

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